Ca. 250 million years ago there was a super continent on the surface of our Earth. What existed before? Science can’t prove anything “without a reasonable doubts”. Let’s leave it at that for the moment.
The laws of physics commonly called “Natural Forces” or “Nature’s own law” gives us more than one information about this super continent. Such as Magnetism show the existense of Pangea’s geography as well as old sediments now within hard grounds as mountains as well as Alps gives information re. CO2, SO2 and existing “life” on Earth from those days forward up to our own Human Age.
Due to Natural forces, still existing today, the super continent Pangea was subjected to strong internal as well as external forces in Nature. Sun, Earth’s rotation speed, Earth’s cooling down from a very hot and toxic athmosphere to the athmospere we have today. The Earth is not a perfect sphere. At the poles, the Earth seen from space slightly flattened. This is a result of the rotation of the Earth, the Earth’s distance from the sun, Earth wobbling, slope, Natures own catastropic history and such. For more facts please look up the Earth’s history
Due to factors mention above as well as some complicated but essential hard to understand factors this caused the large super continent of Pangea to break up into pieces. In other words tectonical plates. “Floating” around, not on water but on a deeper warm and floating interior of our Earth. Let’s try to explain it simple from an old school experiment of 1920’s:
On a cold day the teacher brought with her candles. It was a she. Back in 1920’s Sweden it usually was a she teaching for 9-10 year old boys and girls. She opened the door or the window and asked the students to observe the candle light flames reaction when holding it up resp down in the “doorway”. (Warm air rises, cold “falls” down).
Same happens in the interior of our Earth. While it’s true that fluid such as all form of water tend to “fall” down seaching for the lowest possible point in Nature, heat air and gases “rises”.
Due to Nature’s own forces the tectonical plates can act in some wellknown ways when “meeting” an other tectonic plate on Earth’s surface.
When there arose something we need to simplify here and call it stresses and cracking. Simply told we can say that this caused a large number of tiles to occur.
Those situation was and still is/are either:
Plates collided with each other and pushed each other away
* Collided with each other and slide over or under each other.
Please remember the heat/cold experiment. That’s essential in order to understand why CO2, SO2 and so on during eruptions of vulcanos or during earth quakes reaches out in air and up in athmosphere.
As the Earth spins, and these plates sits a top. sliding and/or floating on top of each other rotation is one of the main factors that spread plates around. This is an old process taking millions of years reaching up to present situation where tectonic plates can be found “all over the planet”.
In zones where plates collide occurs earthquakes. In zones where plates move apart and / or cracks occur in slabs due to natural forces, as volcanic eruptions occur.
Briefly it can be said that the volcanic eruption means that when the tension increases further down in the soil that is much warmer than our surface is, and these stresses are sufficiently large, so ‘must’ pressure to equalize and it is done by the volcano comes to life. A volcano is an opening where molten rock, gases, etc. to ease the pressure speed up/out. Visible for us are the gas clouds and lava. In order to explain this deeper one needs to have at least some knowledge about what’s called String Theory. At least the first String Theory. The second now accounted for is much more complex but very intriguing. In “everyday life” and for ordinary school above mentioned is enough knowledge needed.